oncology malignancies cancers tumours

oncology malignancies cancers tumours

first of all what is definition of oncology this word can be  divided into two part first onco which mean mass or tumour or swelling or bulk and second logy which means study so oncology means it is the branch or the science which deal with everything about the tumours or cancers
In this section i will talk about  these contents

       As the population ages oncology is becoming a larger portion of surgical practice

The surgeon often  is  responsible for the initial diagnosis and management of solid tumors

Knowledge of cancer epidemiology ,etiology, staging, and natural history is required for initial patient assessment
 as well as to determine the optimal surgical therapy
Modem cancer therapy is multidisciplinary, involving the coordinated care of surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, reconstructive surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, and primary care physicians

Primary therapy refers to en bloc resection of tumor with adequate margins of normal tissues and in some cases regional lymph nodes

Adjuvant therapy refers to radiation therapy and systemic therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy,hormonal therapy,and increasingly, biologic therapy
 The primary goal of surgical and radiation therapy is local and regional con­trol
 On the other hand,the primary goal of systemic therapies is systemic control by treating distant foci of subclinical disease to prevent recurrence
 Surgeons must be familiar with adjuvant thera­pies to coordinate multidisciplinary care and to determine the best sequence of therapy
.Recent advances in molecular biology are revolutionizing medicine
 Nowhere has basic biology had a greater and more imme­diate impact than in oncology
 New information is being translated rapidly into clinical use, with the development of new prognostic and predictive markers and new biologic therapies
It is therefore essential that surgeons understand the principles of molecular on­cology in order to appropriately interpret these new contributions and incorporate them into practice
Cancer terminology and epidemiology


Means is the study of disease frequency in populations in cancer epidemiology, useful concepts include

measures of incidence as

 Prevalence: which means proportion of population with a condition at a given time

 incidence:which means proportion of population developing a condition in a given time measures of risk

Risk factor: which means an agent or characteristic predisposing to the development of a condition

Relative risk:which means strength of association between risk factor and condition
 Measures of outcome

Disease-free survival: which means an outcome measure in oncology for the time period from diagnosis to detection of recurrence

Life table: which means a calculation predicting the cumulative probability of surviving a given number of years e.g 5-year survival rate

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