Pig or swine influenza causes types diagnosis and treatment

Pig or swine influenza causes types diagnosis and treatment
Introduction
Pig or swine influenza it is a viral infection which affect human and can produce mild to severe disease and the disease is transmitted from people to other people
Transmission of virus from pigs to human is not common and rare to causes human flu
Pig or swine influenza also known as 2009 virus which caused by influenza A serotype  H1N1
HA means haemagglutinin and NA means neuraminidase which they are the viral proteins that determine the subtype of influenza virus for example A|H1N1 and H3N2 v
The HA and NA are important in the immune response against virus antibodies the NA protein is the target of the antiviral drugs such as relenza and tamiflu

The pig or swine virus are more common and more dangerous in those with low immunity from any causes such as extreme of age eg infants, child and old age also in pregnant woman ,immune-compermized patient such as AIDS,diabetic patient ,cancer or patient with malignancy or on chemotherapy ,patient with chronic pulmonary air way diseases and cardiovascular diseases or blood diseases such as leukemia, renal and hepatic diseases and neurological diseases
What are the classification of virus influenza
There are three known types of virus influenza type A,B and C that can causes human flu but in pigs there is two types influenza A which is common and influenza C which is rare

Influenza A
Pig or swine influenza is known to be caused by influenza type A subtypes H1N1,H1N2,H2N3,H3N1,and H3N2 in 2012 the center for disease control and prevention CDC confirmed the presence H3N2 v
What are the methods of transmission in human
People in direct contact or exposure to poultry and swine are more liable for infection with influenza virus endemic in these animals such as farm worker
In human influenza spread between humans when infected people cough and sneeze ,then other people breathe in the virus or touch something with the virus on it such as tables or glasses and then people touch their own face such as eye ,nose and mouth
What are the symptoms and signs in human
  • The patient may complaining from symptoms similar to those of usual influenza 
  • The patient may complaining from high grade body temperature fever
  • The patient may complaining from sore throat 
  • The patient may complaining from cough and increased nasal secretion
  • The patient may complaining from body ache or generalized skeletal pain
  • The patient may complaining from severe headache
  • The patient may complaining from lethargy and fatigue and loss of appetite
  • The patient may complaining from diarrhea and vomiting which important
  • The patient may complaining from chills and shivering
  • These are symptoms not specific to swine flu so that the CDC advise the doctors to consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile  respiratory illness who have either  been in contact with person with confirmed swine flu
  • To confirm the diagnosis that need for laboratory testing by taken simple swab from the nose and throat
  • Best method of diagnosis recommended by CDC it is real time polymerase chain reaction( PCR )as the method of choice to diagnosis H1N1
  • The patient may complaining from the virus complications such as respiratory failure and pneumonia
What are the complications of swine virus
There are some complications which can be associated with swine virus which may be the causes of death such as respiratory failure ,pneumonia ,renal failure,  dehydration and electrolytes imbalance due to excessive vomiting and diarrhea ,high fever can affect the brain and lead to neurological manifestations
 
What are the methods of human transmission prevention
There are two methods that can prevent transmission of the virus as follow

Prevention OF transmission from pigs to human
  • The transmission of swine virus to human occur mainly in swine farms because they are in direct contact with living pigs ,although strains of swine influenza are usually not able to causes human infections so to prevent this transmission the farm workers and veterinarians or other people with direct contact with infected pigs should be use face masks when they deal with these animals
  • There are risk factors which can increased transmission of the disease from swine to human such as smoking and people not wear gloves in his hands when working with these infected pigs so these leads to increased risk of  hand to eye,hand to nose or hand to mouth transmission
  • Vaccination against swine virus to prevent their infection is consider a major method to limit swine to human transmission
Prevention OF transmission from human to human
  • There are recommendation to prevent spread of infection between human such as
  • Frequent washing of the hand with soap and water or with alcohol based hand sanitizers especially after being out in public also washing the face
  • Using disinfecting materials such as diluted chlorine bleach solution for household surface more effective to decreased incidence of transmission
  • Avoid touching your own eye ,nose and mouth by your hand
  • As influenza can spread in cough and sneezes so small droplets of containing the virus can linger on tabletops telephones and other surface which transferred by the fingers to the eye ,nose and mouth but using alcohol based gel or foam hand sanitizers reduce the risk of transmission
  • Any person with flu like symptoms such as sudden fever, muscle pain and cough should be stay away from work or public transportation and should contact a doctor for advise
  • Social distancing is staying away from other people who might be infected and can include avoiding large gatherings,spreading out a little at work or may be stay in the home and lying low if an infection is spreading in community
  • The patient should use a tissue to cover his mouth and nose when he get cough or sneeze and put them in a waste basket
  • Follow your doctors instructions
What are the vaccination against swine virus
The Food and Drug Administration FDA approved that the new swine flu vaccine for use in United State on 2009  ,studies by the national institutes of health show a single dose  of the vaccine can created enough antibodies to protect against the virus within about 10 days
What are the treatment of pig or swine virus in human
Treatment can be including the following items
Antiviral drugs
  These drugs make the disease mild and make the patient feel better faster
These drugs also can reduce or prevent  the risk of the complications
These drugs give better result when they start early within first two days of the symptoms
The U.S.Centers for disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and or prevention of infection with swine influenza virus
It is important to know that most of people infected with virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs
It was found that the virus isolated in the 2009 outbreak have been found resistant to other antiviral drugs such as amantadine and rimantadine
Beside antiviral drugs the patient need supportive care either at home or better at hospital for controlling of their symptoms such as fever and to relieve pain and maintaining fluid balance also for treatment any associated complications or other medical problems
Don not take aspirin because it may lead to reyes syndrome

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